Publication Date 01/07/2014         Volume. 6 No. 6   
Information to Pharmacists


From the desk of the editor

Welcome to the July 2014 homepage edition of i2P (Information to Pharmacists) E-Magazine.
At the commencement of 2014 i2P focused on the need for the entire profession of pharmacy and its associated industry supports to undergo a renewal and regeneration.
We are now half-way through this year and it is quite apparent that pharmacy leaders do not yet have a cohesive and clear sense of direction.
Maybe the new initiative by Woolworths to deliver clinical service through young pharmacists and nurses may sharpen their focus.
If not, community pharmacy can look forward to losing a substantial and profitable market share of the clinical services market.
Who would you blame when that happens?
But I have to admit there is some effort, even though the results are but meagre.
In this edition of i2P we focus on the need for research about community pharmacy, the lack of activity from practicing pharmacists and when some research is delivered, a disconnect appears in its interpretation and implementation.

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Postcard from New York. HIV in The City.

Dr Andrew Byrne & Associates

articles by this author...

A Harm-Minimisation Research Perspective: Dr Byrne (and his associates) advocate for better policies which are proven to reduce risks for drug users and the general community, under a framework in parallel with Australia’s official policy of harm minimisation.

Dr Byrne is overseas, and here is his latest very interesting report on HIV control in cities.
Australia and NZ are raised .
Dr Don Des Jarlais is one of the great researchers in this area.

Public Lecture at NYC Health Department under auspices of Mayor Bloomberg.
2pm Thursday 18th March 2010

This City Department of Health public lecture started with some rather complex statistical formulae of how to deal with missing data in studies of the natural history of HIV seroconversions. Michelle Shardell PhD had ‘inherited’ a job on a long term project (ALIVE or AIDS Linked to the Intra-Venous Experience) which started, she said, while she was still in school (1988). It enrolled 3000 HIV negative injectors and ordered twice yearly blood testing to determine ‘natural’ rates of seroconversion.

Professor Shardell described the problems of having reams of data but where much was incomplete and how best to draw the correct conclusions by approximating missing data. She discussed the conflicting possible biases of those who miss blood test appointments, some because they may have been well and busy with life … while others may have been unstable and unhappy, using drugs and alcohol, being unemployed and/or engaging in high-risk behaviours and thus missed their blood test.

We were introduced to a complex set of sigma formulae which were supposed to account for missing periods in otherwise long-term data. It was a little disappointing that we were given virtually no outcome data of the study, some details of which I looked up later on an internet search.

On the other hand, the next speaker, Dr Don Des Jarlais quoted HIV prevalence figures for several American cities, Chicago and Miami were the worst with near 30% of injectors estimated to be HIV positive. In other cities the figure was much lower, around 1% amongst injectors. In several the figure was a blank as no data was currently available.

The message was emphasised that good research from New York had shown that for injectors who began injecting before 1995 the rates of HIV was substantially higher than for those who started afterwards. And this was the case for just about every category of risk. New York City, unlike much of America, had reasonably good access to opioid maintenance treatments as well other harm reduction services such as needle “exchange”, as it is still quaintly termed here. And it largely functions in the US as just that – ‘exchange’ new for old (imagine if we did that for condoms!). We were reminded that the proportion of dependent individuals currently on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) was calculated to have risen from 6 to 8 percent in America, showing only a modest improvement over ten years. We were reminded also that “secondary needle exchange” (pass-it-on) was vital to the success of the intervention wherein non-addicts (sometimes called ‘alcoholics’) would make small profits by returning used needles and obtaining clean supplies to be sold/distributed at a later time for money.

Dr Des Jarlais is far too experienced to lecture Americans about foreign findings yet he subtly dropped two pearls into the mix towards the end of his presentation in lower Manhattan. He had discussed and described some of the needle services here in American cities and then told the audience that (‘tiny’) New Zealand had over 600 needle exchanges while there were only about 300 in the whole of America. He alluded to the changes in federal funding for such preventive interventions but pointed out that it will take some years for such policy change to filter down to ‘street level’. In a reference to Australia he also pointed out that most of the few drug injectors who contract HIV do so from sexual exposure rather than from needles (while up to 8000 Americans do so annually from contaminated needles if we are to believe the figures).

The correlation between past genital herpes simplex infection and HIV was reiterated, pointing out the behavioural and physical reasons involved.

While Don Des Jarlais did not quote the HIV rates in New Zealand I had done so privately with the City Health Department official Lucia Torian before she opened the session - which was delayed slightly due to new and inordinate security introduced after the failed Detroit plane bombing before Xmas (all visitors were photographed!). She had responded to my comment that a number of countries had avoided the HIV plague, saying that I must be referring to Russia, Ukraine and North Korea where there is still denial of the existence of the epidemic in some circles. I said that actually I was referring to Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand. Following another off-hand remark she made, I told her that each time I mentioned this to Americans I was either disbelieved or derided, just as she was doing.

Dr Samuel Friedman acted as discussant and in half an hour elaborated some details of the presentations. He commended Dr Shardell on her study but commented that rather than only seeking views of academic experts the team might do better to include the views of knowledgeable drug users. Such folk are readily available and many have a lot to contribute. On that subject, I once asked Professor Vincent P. Dole his opinion about a new secure medicine container. He said that before giving his views he would rather hear the views of a few drug use patients.

Dr Friedman pointed out the large number of major US states and cities which no longer publish official figures on HIV cases. His personal greatest worry in epidemiology was when data was not being collected so that knowledge of the public health issues could be swept under the carpet.

Further, we were told of a study done by Dr Friedman, Des Jarlais and colleagues which showed that the different modes of transmission depending upon the infected pool involved in a given population. Where the prevalence in injectors was >20% already, some behaviours (eg. needle sharing) were directly correlated with seroconversion. Where rates of HIV were <9% risk behaviours were not statistically associated with seroconversion but rather the predictors reflected whom they injected among. We learned that the New York rate was between 9 and 20%. There was also some discussion of arrest rates, socio-economic areas and seroconversions and some research linking them.

I mentioned to Dr Des Jarlais that Hawai’i appears to have the best organised and most widespread needle availability in the US, some of which I saw on a recent visit. Dr Des Jarlais told me he was aware of that since in fact he was the official evaluator for the State’s harm reduction project! That man is everywhere! I recall that he spoke at one of the first Methadone Conferences in Sydney almost 20 years ago, warning us about the threat of HIV and the means to prevent a second wave in drug users. His advice was timely and his campaign to implement better public health strategies continues unabated. More strength to him - and his colleagues! And thanks to the New York City Health Department for sponsoring these public lectures, and allowing strays like me in.

Comments by Andrew Byrne ..

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